The 41stCOSPAR Scientific Assembly will be held in İstanbul, which bridges Asia and Europe both physically and culturally. The city has been the capital of three great empires (the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman) and the world was ruled from here by over 120 emperors and sultans for more than 1600 years. Surrounded by 5thcentury Roman city walls and stretching over seven hills, Istanbul is adorned by the masterpieces of Turkish art, the great mosques of the Sultans that crown the hills. The city presents an exquisite, majestic and serene silhouette from all directions.
İstanbul Congress Center, where the 41stAssembly will take place, is in the Taksim district which is located in the European part of İstanbul. Taksim is a main transportation hub and a popular destination for both tourists and the native population of Istanbul. İstiklal Caddesi (Independence Avenue), a long pedestrian shopping street, ends at this square, and a nostalgic tram runs from the square along the avenue, ending near the Tünel (1875) which is the world's second-oldest subway line. The congress center is, in short, located in a very pleasant and historic part of the city which offers, among other attractions, many restaurants which Assembly participants will certainly wish to try for lunch or dinner.